A collaborative effort with Ari Rosner of Pandemic Analytics in developing a new Distancing Model for reopening facilities and keeping them open:

NARA – National Association for Regulatory Administration Links for COVID19 and Key Indicator Research:

A Logic Model depicting the proposed interplay amongst child care delivery, emergency child care, and child care for ill children:

Logic Model

Dr Fiene pictured with Tara Orlowski, NARA President and Marcus Williams, NARA Executive Director on the announcement of the NARA and RIKI Partnership.

key indicators slider 002

Please see the Press Release on the partnership between NARA and RIKI.
(NARA Press Release (October 2015) on NARA-RIKI partnership).


RIKI – Research Institute for Key Indicators LLC, directed by Dr Richard Fiene, Research Psychologist and Retired Professor of Psychology and Human Development, Penn State University, focus is to improve the quality of early care and education programs nationally and internationally through an empirically based Child Care Indicator (Child Care Indicator – Wikipedia) methodology.  

What are the key indicators that distinguish high quality programs?   It is not about finding more or less rules/regulations/standards, it is about finding the “right” rules/regulations/standards that help produce positive outcomes for children (Theory of Regulatory Compliance)(Regulatory Compliance – Wikipedia)(Journal of Regulatory Science). “Washing your hands will help in the prevention of the spread of infectious diseases but will not create a high quality program; and using the ‘creative curriculum’ will help children developmentally but it will not protect children from injuries”

And then it is building and implementing data driven/empirically based program monitoring systems that reflect this knowledge in order to determine the most cost effective and efficient approach (Theory of Regulatory Compliance (TRC) Monitoring Paradigms Key Elements).  Although the theory and model were developed within the early care and education field, its applicability transfers easily to all other human services and to social regulations.  Another way of thinking of it is similar to Steve Jobs’ “30% Rule“!

The Key Indicator methodology created by Dr Fiene in the 1970’s which resulted in an Early Childhood Program Quality Improvement & Indicator Model (RIKI ECPQIM-DMLMA Book of Readings) has gone through four generations from 1975 through to 2013 (RIKI REPORTS 2013-2014). The ECPQIM’s key components/elements in improving child care quality are through an early childhood program quality indicator model of training, technical assistance, quality rating & improvement systems, professional development, mentoring, licensing, risk assessment, differential program monitoring, and accreditation.   Here is a tool based upon ECPQIM being developed by the Saskatchewan Ministry of Education (ECPQIM Tool).

Most recently, Dr Fiene has applied a validation framework to ECPQIM, please see the following anthology which ties the theory, model, framework and results together (TRC ECPQIM VAL DM).  Rigorous validation studies were completed in 2019-2020 clearly demonstrating the reliability and validity of ECPQIM.

Regulatory Compliance Law of Diminishing Returns


If interested in any of the publications or links on this website, please contact RIKILLC by emailing RFiene@RIKInstitute.com.

fiene r picture


Richard Fiene, Ph.D., Research Psychologist (Bio)(CV)

Dr. Fiene has spent his professional career in improving the quality of child care in Pennsylvania, nationally, and internationally. He has done extensive research and publishing on the key components in improving child care quality through an Early Childhood Program Quality Improvement & Indicator Model (Fiene ECPQIM Slides (DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.27735.88484)(PPT141 NARA-RIKI ECPQIM/DMLMA 10-2-19))(Licensing Measurement and Systems Presentation) of training, technical assistance, mentoring, licensing, monitoring, and accreditation. The child care models that he developed in the 1970s and 1980s have been used in the majority of states to improve their licensing/regulatory systems and were the precursors to the development of quality rating systems. A Parent’s Guide to Choosing Safe and Healthy Child Care published by the Federal Department of Health and Human Services and used by the National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care is based upon 13 Indicators of Child Care Quality (the Fiene Key Indicators) and has been used as a checklist by parents nationally to select child care (Parents Guide Checklist). This checklist was highlighted in a Parade Magazine article (7/19/09) The New Push For Quality Child Care. In addition, the Fiene Key Indicators have been used as part of NACCRRA’s Report Card on Child Care Quality: We CAN Do Better.

In addition to Dr Fiene’s academic appointments at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro and the Pennsylvania State University as a professor of human development and psychology, he has been a Special Assistant to both the Deputy Secretary for the Office of Children, Youth and Families and the Secretary of Public Welfare during the 1990’s in which he was the Research Director and Policy Analyst for the development of the licensing and training systems in the Department of Public Welfare (now the Department of Human Services) for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. He was the first director of research for the Office of Human Services Licensing in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.  He also was part of the statewide committee that developed the original standards for the Pennsylvania QRIS Keystone STARS program and the original designer of the CCECD – Child Care and Early Childhood Development training system. In the development of the CCECD training system, he provided the initial funding for Better Kid Care an innovative national on-line training delivery system.  He developed and implemented an early childhood program certificate series at Penn State Harrisburg which blossomed into the present day early childhood certification program.  He co-founded the Pennsylvania Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics Early Childhood Education Linkage System (ECELS) with Dr Susan Aronson; he was the founding director of CAECTI – Capital Area Early Childhood Training and Research Institute (CAHHDI Five-Year Report) at Penn State University with Dr Mark Greenberg, Director of the Prevention Research Center (PRC Five-Year Report)(PRC Ten Year Report); and helped to bring TEACH to Pennsylvania.  Dr Fiene is a past Fellow of the Pennsylvania Psychological Association, a past Member of the American Psychological Association, Eastern Psychological Association, American Association of University Professors, National Association for the Education of Young Children, Society for Research in Child Development,  American Educational Research Association, and one of the founders of the University-Based Child and Family Policy Consortium.

Dr Fiene started his career in the early 1970’s directing one of the first national infant toddler demonstration centers in the US.  His early research led to the development of the Child Development Program Evaluation Scale (CDPES) which influenced the future development of differential monitoring, and identifying herding/clustering behavior in two-year old developmental play patterns.  Dr Fiene has been a consultant to Zero to Three; served on the National Review Panel of the Program for Infant Toddler Caregivers (see photo below) with T. Berry Brazelton, Laura Dittman, Magda Gerber, Asa Hilliard, Alice Honig, Jeree Pawl, Ron Lally, and Sally Provence; was one of the original national commissioners for NAEYC’s Accreditation System; and a member of the Pennsylvania Early Childhood Task Force (see photo below) Research Team (researchers from Penn State, Temple, & University of Pittsburgh) created by Governor Richard Schweiker and Co-Chaired by Honorary Chairperson Fred Rogers (see photo below).  And most recently he is a member of the Office of Child Care’s National Center for Early Childhood Quality Assurance’s Licensing Expert Panel and Licensing Research Work Group and the Office of Head Start’s National Center for Early Childhood Health and Wellness COVID19 Early Childhood Expert Panel.

Dr Fiene’s education include a BA in early childhood/elementary education and an MA and PhD in developmental psychology.  Dr Fiene was a Regents Scholar while at SUNY Stony Brook and is Certified in Early Childhood Education in New York state.  He continues taking CITI & IBM courses and is CITI Certified (ID#:5527822)(Biomedical Certificate 2016-2019) (Clinical Practice Certificate 2017-2020)(Biomedical Certificate 2019-2022)(Clinical Practice Certificate 2020-2023)(IBM Statistics Certificate 2020) as a research psychologist/investigator and affiliate professor at Penn State University and Penn State Hershey – College of Medicine.  Dr Fiene has received several awards during his career including, being chosen by the Exchange Leadership Initiative (Exchange Leadership Initiative Article)(The Exchange Leaders Website Link) to join the 300 Early Childhood Exchange Leaders from around the world, the National Association for Regulatory Administration’s President’s Award for contributions to regulatory administration and science, Capital Area Association for the Education of Young Children Golden Apple Award, Pennsylvania Association for the Education of Young Children VOICE for Children Distinguished Career Award (VOICE-BIO-Dr.-Fiene) (PennAEYC Website Award Notification), and the Albert Nelson Marquis Lifetime Achievement Award (Fiene Bio TRC1).  He continues to be a member (retired) of the Association for Psychological Science/formerly American Psychological Society (Year of Election: 1997) as a research psychologist and a member of  The Trust Practice and Risk Management Association.


Over the past 50 years, Dr Fiene’s research and publications have helped states develop and improve their child care licensing systems to more clearly focus on the key factors in developing high quality child care programs (his research has been disseminated to all 50 states and over 100 countries). His key indicator and weighting methodologies developed in the 1970’s have led to the development and implementation of risk assessment, differential monitoring, and abbreviated inspections in the regulatory administration field; have been highlighted in three major national publications by the Assistant Secretary’s Office of Planning and Evaluation (ASPE), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) & United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the Office of Children Care (OCC): the ASPE white paper (Innovation in Monitoring ECE Programs), HHS/USDA Joint Monitoring Statement (Final HHS USDA Joint Monitoring Policy Statement) and the OCC licensing brief (Monitoring Strategies for Determining Compliance); and are part of the NARA Licensing Curriculum.  Most recently Dr Fiene’s research while at CAECTI related to his mentoring/coaching program was highlighted as a compelling model in the ASPE/LITES Compelling Models Report and his differential monitoring approach was highlighted in the OPRE/Child Trends’ Coordinated Monitoring Systems in Early Care and Education Report.  In 2016, the Province of Ontario’s Ministry of Education Tiered Licensing System based upon Dr Fiene’s key indicator and risk assessment methodologies received an innovation award.  And in 2017, BUILD, the National Center for Early Childhood Quality Assurance (NCECQA), and the National Association for Regulatory Administration collaborated on a series of webinars (The Webinar Series: OCC Website) with 10 states to more efficiently and effectively monitor licensing; and the development of a National Standards Crosswalk Tool by NCECQA.

His key indicator and weighting methodologies have led to the development of Stepping Stones to Caring for Our Children, the National Early Childhood Program Accreditation system, Head Start Differential Monitoring and Key Indicators, Caring for Our Children-Basics, Thirteen Key Indicators to Quality Child Care, Child Development Program Evaluation Scale (CDPES), and the Cruise to Quality Child Care Standards for the cruise line industry as adapted by CLIA.

In 2013, Dr Fiene created RIKI – Research Institute for Key Indicators LLC (2020 Promise ECE Innovation) in order to consolidate all research development into a single research institute.  All Dr Fiene’s previous research became part of the new institute specifically designed to further develop his human service licensing and program monitoring methodologies and systems.  In 2016-17, RIKI has had the distinct honor to become a partner with Results For America as it relates to providing and supporting empirical evidence for blue ribbon interventions – Invest in What Works Coalition Partners.  In 2018, RIKI has had the opportunity to partner with the Early Childhood Innovations Network.  And in 2020, RIKI has partnered with VIBE/FSL (VIBE/FSL/RIKI Research Team).   Dr Fiene and RIKI also have had research collaborations with excellent teams in Washington, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Indiana.  He presently continues to work full-time at the research institute.

In 2015, RIKI and NARA (National Association for Regulatory Administration) entered into an exclusive partnership for the future development and implementation of differential monitoring, risk assessment and key indicators in which NARA will assume the intellectual property rights of these methodologies. Also please see the NARA Key Indicator Systems Brochure, NARA Targeted Measurement Tools, NARA Key Indicator Webpage, NARA 2017 Licensing Survey Report, and NARA Key Indicator Systems.

For additional information, please contact Dr Fiene via the National Association for Regulatory Administration (NARA): RFiene@NARALicensing.org 

Dr. Fiene recently updated the Licensing Measurement and Systems NARA Licensing Curriculum Course through the use of this website as part of NARA’s series on the Key Indicator System: Facilitated Dialogues with Dr Rick Fiene (NARA’s KIS Facilitated Dialogues ).  This link has registration information for signing up for the series.

One can start with the publications webpage which is listed on (https://rikinstitute.com/publications) the menu above on this RIKI Institute website. These publications chronicle 50+ years of research into licensing measurement and systems research with particular emphasis on the Early Childhood Program Quality Improvement and Indicator Model (ECPQIM).

After reviewing this webpage, the interested reader can go to the RIKI Reports (https://rikinstitute.com/reports) webpage which provides detailed national and state reports in developing differential monitoring, key indicator and risk assessment systems. It also provides many actual examples of tools and policies that can be used by state administrators.

There are additional webpages that the interested reader can explore in greater detail if s/he is so inclined, such as: the webpage that contains posters and articles (https://rikinstitute.com/posters) which really summarizes the ECPQIM in a series of posters and refereed journal articles. Or the webpage that gives a detailed overview to ECPQIM/DMLMA (https://rikinstitute.com/ecpqim) where one will find many documents which detail the key elements of the model dealing with licensing, and program quality initiatives, such as quality rating and improvement systems or professional development systems. And then finally, a blog (https://rikinstitute.com/blog) that chronicles the latest thinking about licensing measurement and systems.

This course was usually offered over two days; now with all the updated material it is a five day/full week course equivalent to a three credit course or 45 contact hours for those who would be interested in CEU’s.  The course can be offered totally online, a combination of online and in person, or totally in person.  It can be offered over a full week or over 15 weeks with 3 hour classes.

Here is a brief outline of the Course, Licensing Measurement and Systems/Key Indicator Systems: Facilitated Dialogues with Dr Rick Fiene, (NARA Course: Key Indicator Facilitated Dialogues with Dr Rick Fiene), followed by a book of readings which will be used as a textbook, the lectures slides, and selected scientific articles that describe the theory, methodology, and system:

  1. Overview (ECPQIM/DMLMA & Publications)(Fiene Research1)
  2. Conceptual/Theoretical Framework (ECPQIM/DMLMA & Publications)
  3. Principles of Instrument Design (RIKI Reports)
  4. Measurement: Reliability and Validity (RIKI Reports)
  5. Regulatory Compliance and Program Quality (ECPQIM/DMLMA)
  6. QRIS and other Quality Initiatives (RIKI Blog)
  7. Statistical Methods and Data Base Development (RIKI Reports & RIKI Blog)
  8. Coordinated Program Monitoring (National)
  9. Differential Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Key Indicators (ECPQIM/DMLMA & RIKI Blog)
  10. What Research Tells Us (Posters/Articles)
  11. What Research Doesn’t Tell Us: Unanswered Questions (RIKI Blog)
  12. National, International, and State Examples (RIKI Reports, RIKI Blog)
  13. Future Directions (RIKI Blog)

Here is an abbreviated version of the course, self-paced and self-contained:

Please contact me if you have questions or comments:
Rick Fiene, Affiliate Professor, Penn State Prevention Research Center at Fiene@psu.edu 

and visit www.naralicensing.org/key-indicator-facilitated-dialogues


Contact Information:

  • Richard Fiene, Ph.D., Research Institute for Key Indicators (RIKILLC)
  • Office Phone: 717-598-8908 Mobile
  • Institute Email: RFiene@RIKInstitute.com or University Email: Fiene@PSU.EDU
  • iLookOut Office: College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Penn State Health

Anthologies of journal articles, posters, webinar, RIKI reports, chapters, and national reports, standards & tools describing the theory, the model, and the methodologies for regulatory compliance, differential monitoring, risk assessment and key indicators:

RIKI Funding, Contracts, Proposals, & Expert Consultation:   

  • State of Georgia,
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,
  • National Association for Regulatory Administration and the states of:
  • California,
  • Montana,
  • Illinois,
  • Michigan,
  • Indiana,
  • Washington,
  • Kansas,
  • Wisconsin,
  • Minnesota,
  • and the Provinces of British Columbia,
  • Alberta, and
  • Saskatchewan,
  • Office of Head Start,
  • Office of Child Care,
  • Administration for Children and Families,
  • National Center for Early Childhood Quality Assurance,
  • Pennsylvania Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics,
  • Penn State University, College of Medicine,
  • Penn State University, College of Ag. Sciences,
  • Province of Ontario’s Ministry of Education,
  • Hawaii,
  • Oregon, 
  • Koch and Associates,
  • EDS,
  • ICFI,
  • The Lewin Group & Danya, DLH,
  • Colorado,
  • New York,
  • Arizona,
  • Expert Licensing Panel,
  • COVID19 ECE Expert Panel,
  • New Jersey Legal,
  • Pennsylvania Legal,
  • Washington DC Legal,
  • Child Trends, and
  • Royal Caribbean/Celebrity Cruise Lines.


Below is a photo from 2001 with Mr Fred Rogers, Governor Schweiker, and the Early Childhood Task Force Research Team.

Mr Rogers and Governor with Early Childhood Task Force Research Team

Why I do what I do in trying to improve early care and education for all children.

Christmas with Fienes

Fiene Christmas 2019

A tribute to 50 years together (Thru the Decades)

PITD Panel

A really old photo (~35 years ago) of the National Review Panel of the Program for Infant Toddler Caregivers with T. Berry Brazelton, Laura Dittman, Magda Gerber, Asa Hilliard, Alice Honig, Jeree Pawl, Ron Lally, and Sally Provence.

Georgia Staff

Photo (2013) of the Georgia DECAL state staff (Bobby Cagle, Commissioner) who I had the opportunity to work with on the Georgia Validation Study of their differential monitoring core rule system. 

ECE Task Force with Governor

Governor Schweiker signing the Executive Order creating the Early Childhood Task Force back in 2001 which led to the Early Care and Education Program Quality Study and many other wonderful quality initiatives.